Monday, 28 November 2011

Manna from Sint Nicholas

The Roman Catholic Church has managed to mint money out of the legacy of a man who died in 343 A.D.  Because when his skull and bony remains was removed from a tomb in 1950, the Catholics claimed liquid came from the dry bones. This liquid is only collected on the feast day of Nicholas, which is December 6th. The liquid is called “manna”, and is sold on bottles as miraculous water.
Read more:

The skull of Catholic “Santa” has a boken nose

Virgin Mary’s girdle

A chunk of the Virgin Mary’s girdle, made of camel hair and preserved for centuries since its owner headed heavenwards according a lot of Christians. For several Christians it is a holy relic, which is now on tour in Russia and drawing crowds of Orthodox believers on a scale that makes U2 concerts look under-populated

The belt is usually kept in a monastery on Mount Athos, Greece, but has been toted round a series of Russian cities over the past few weeks, ending up in Moscow’s Cathedral of Christ the Saviour – the vast white and gold post-USSR replacement for an Orthodox cathedral razed under Stalin. Pilgrims are flooding in to kiss the relic, which is believed to have special powers to treat infertility and promote health.

For the Orthodox Church, already enjoying a resurgence and snowballing membership since the USSR fell apart, the public display of faith is an apparent triumph: devotion doesn’t come much plainer than this. Not everyone agrees, though: even among the faithful, the extremity of the response (at least half a million people have turned out in Moscow alone, and another two million elsewhere in Russia) smacks a touch too much of superstition, of a kind of mass hysteria.

Read the whole story:
  1. Belt up! – the Virgin Mary comes to Moscow

  2. Belt up part II – how the Virgin Mary won Russia’s elections


Saturday, 26 November 2011

OT prophesies and the NT fulfillment of them

Here are just some of OT prophesies and the NT fulfilment of them:
The Son of God,  Ps 2:7 Luk 1:32, 35.
The seed of the woman,  Gen 3:15 Gal 4:4.
Seed of Abraham,   Gen 17:7,  22:18 Gal 3:16.
Seed of Isaac,  Gen 21:12 Heb 11:17-19.

Seed of DavidPs 132:11 Jer 23:5 Acts 13:23 Rom 1:3.
Coming at the appointed time,  Gen 49:10 Dan 9:24, 25 Lk 2:1.
Born of a virgin,  Is 7:14 Mat 1:22, 23 Lk 2:7. 
Called Immanuel (God with us) Is 7:14 Mat 1:22, 23.
Born in Bethlehem of Judea,  Mic 5:2 Mat 2:1 Lk 2:4-6. 
Great persons coming to adore Him,  Ps 72:10 Mat 2:1-11.
The slaying of the children of Bethlehem,  Jer 31:15 Mat 2:16-18.
Called out of Egypt,  Hos 11:1 Mat 2:15.
Preceded by John the Baptist,  Is 40:3 Mal 3:1 Mat 3:1, 3 Lk 1:17.
Anointed with the Spirit,  Ps 45:7 Is 11:2,  61:1 Mat 3:16 Jh 3:34 Acts 10:38.
Prophet like to Moses,  Deut 18:15-18 Acts 3:20-22.
Priest after the order of MelchizedekPs110:4 Heb 5:5, 6.
Entering public ministry,  Is 61:1, 2 Lk 4:16-21, 43.
Ministry in Galilee,  Is 9:1, 2 Mat 4:12-16, 23.
Entering publicly into Jerusalem,  Zec 9:9 Mat 21:1-5.
His coming into the temple, Hag 2:7, 9 Mal 3:1 Mt 21:12 Lu 2:27-32 Joh 2:13-16.
His poverty, Is 53:2 Mk 6:3 Lk 9:58.
His meekness,  Is 42:2 Mat 12:15, 16, 19.
Tenderness and compassion Is 40:11 42:3 Mat 12:15, 20  Heb 4:15.
Without guile,  Is 53:9 1Pe 2:22. 
His zeal,  Ps 69:9 Jh 2:17.
Preaching in parables, Ps 78:2 Mat 13:34, 35.
Working miracles, Is 35:5, 6 Mat 11:4-6 Jh 11:47
His bearing reproach,  Ps 22:6 69:7,9, 20 Rom 15:3.
Rejected by his brethren,  Ps 69:8 Is 63:3 Jh 1:11 7:3.
Stone of stumbling to the Jews,  Is 8:14 Rom 9:32 1Pe 2:8.
Hated by the Jews, Ps 69:4 Is 49:7 Jh 15:24, 25.
Rejected by the Jewish rulers,  Ps 118:22 Mat 21:42 Jhn 7:48.
Jews and Gentiles combine against Him,  Ps 2:1, 2 Lk 23:12 Acts 4:27.
Betrayed by a friend,  Ps 41:9 55:12-14 Jhn 13:18, 21
Disciples forsake Him Zec 13:7 Mat 26:31, 56.
Sold for thirty pieces silver  Zec 11:12 Mat 26:15.
His price being given for the potter’s field  Zec 11:13 Mat 27:7.
Agony of his sufferings  Ps 22:14, 15 Lk 22:42, 44.
Sufferings for others Is 53:4-6, 12 Dan 9:26 Mat 20:28.
Patience and silence under suffering,  Is 53:7 Mat 26:63 27:12-14.
Smitten on the cheek, Mic 5:1 Mat 27:30.
Visage being marred,  Is 52:14 53:3 Jhn 19:5.
Spit on and scourged,  Is 50:6 Mk 14:65 Jhn 19:1.
Hands and feet being nailed to the wooden stake,  Ps 22:16 Jhn 19:18 20:25.
Forsaken by God, Ps 22:1 Mat 27:46.
Being mocked,  Ps 22:7, 8 Mat 27:39-44.
Gall and vinegar being given Him to drink,  Ps 69:21 Mat 27:34.
Garments being parted, and lots cast for His clothing,  Ps 22:18 Mat 27:35.
Numbered with the transgressors, Is 53:12 Mk 15:28. 
Intercession for His murderers, Is 53:12 Lk 23:34. 
His Death,  Is 53:12 Mat 27:50.
No bones would be broken,  Ex12:46  Ps 34:20 Jhn 19:33, 36.
Pierced,  Zec 12:10 Jhn 19:34, 37. 
Buried with the rich,  Is 53:9 Mat 27:57-60.
Flesh not seeing corruption, Ps 16:10 Acts 2:31.
His resurrection,  Ps 16:10 Is 26:19 Lk 24:6, 31, 34.
His ascension, Ps 68:18 Lk 24:51 Acts 1:9.
Sitting on the right hand of God, Ps 110:1 Heb 1:3. 
Exercising the priestly office in heaven,  Zec 6:13 Rom 8:34.
The chief cornerstone,  Is 28:16 1Pe 2:6, 7. 
King in Zion Ps 2:6 Lk 1:32 Jhn 18:33-37.
Conversion of the Gentiles to Him,  Is11:10 42:1 Mat 1:17, 21 Jhn 10:16 Acts 10:45, 47.
His righteous government,  Ps 45:6, 7 Jhn 5:30 Rev 19:11. 
Universal dominion, Ps 72:8 Dan 7:14 Phl 2:9, 11. 
Perpetuity of His kingdom,  Is 9:7 Dan 7:14 Lk 1:32, 33.

Monday, 7 November 2011

Denk hard na voor u vandaag handelt

Denk hard na voor u vandaag handelt,
omdat de wijze waarop u handelt
veelvoudige resultaten voor u en anderen zal bepalen. 

Think hard before you act today

Think hard before you act today,
because the way you act will determine multiple outcomes
for you and others.

I am that I am Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh אהיה אשר אהיה

There was a devine creature that gave Moses a reply when He was asked who he was and said: "I am that I am" or "I am who shall be" and He became known as the "I am": Ehyeh asher ehyeh (Hebrew: אהיה אשר אהיה )
“God said to Moses, "I AM WHO I AM.  {Or I WILL BE WHAT I WILL BE}

Tetragrammaton-related-Masoretic-vowel-points

This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I AM has sent me to you.’"” (Exodus 3:14 NIV)

YHWH ("I AM HE WHO IS", "I AM WHO AM" or "I AM WHO I AM"),


The Tetragrammaton itself derives from the same verbal root.  The King James version of the Bible translates the Hebrew as "I am that I am" and uses it as a proper name for God, and is usually translated as "I will be"
(or "I shall be").

“And God said unto Moses, "I AM THAT I AM." And He said, "Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, ‘I AM hath sent me unto you.’"” (Exodus 3:14 KJ21) “And God said to Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shall you say to the children of Israel, I AM has sent me to you.” (Exodus 3:14 KJBPNV)

The Aramaic Targum Onkelos leaves the phrase untranslated and is so quoted in the Talmud (B.  B.  73a).

Many rabbinical scholars consider the word Ehyeh to be a first-person derivation of the Tetragrammaton.  Ehyeh is the first-person singular imperfect form of hayah, "to be".  Ehyeh is usually translated "I will be", since the imperfect tense in Hebrew denotes actions that are not yet completed (e.g.  Exodus 3:12, "Certainly I will be [ehyeh] with thee.")

“And he said, Certainly I will be with you; and this shall be a token to you, that I have sent you: When you have brought forth the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God upon this mountain.” (Exodus 3:12 KJBPNV)

In medieval Jewish tradition they liked very much this form to talk about the Most High Creator of everything.
The phrase is also found in other world religious literature, used to describe the Supreme Being, generally referring back to its use in Exodus.

But it is also used just to indicate that God or somebody else would be or would be with some one or somewhere.

“stay in this land, and I will be with you and bless you, because I will give all these lands to you and to your descendants.  I will fulfill the oath which I swore to Avraham your father—” (Genesis 26:3 CJB)

“ And I have brought them in, They have dwelt in the midst of Jerusalem, And they have been to Me for a people, And I am to them for God, In truth and in righteousness.” (Zechariah 8:8 YLT)

In appearance, it is possible to render YHWH (יהוה ) as an archaic third person singular imperfect form of the verb hayah (אהיה) "to be" meaning, therefore, "He is".  It is notably distinct from the root El, which can be used as a simple noun to refer to the creator deity in general, as in Elohim, meaning simply "God" (or gods).  This interpretation agrees with the meaning of the name given in Exodus 3:14, where God is represented as speaking, and hence as using the first person — ehyeh "I am".  Other scholars regard the triconsonantal root of hawah (הוה) as a more likely origin for the name יהוה   Yahuwah (Jehovah).

Dutch version / Nederlandstalige versie:


Ik ben die ben Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh אהיה אשר אהיה

Toen een devoot man op een berg wat geklommen en tot een goddelijk wezen vroeg wie Hij was gaf dat wezen als antwoord Ehyeh asher ehyeh (Hebreeuws:  אהיה אשר אהיה)"Ik ben die ben" (of ik ben die zal zijn) en werd zo ook gekend onder de naam of titel "Ik ben". In vele Bijbelvertalingen kan men het vinden onder een vorm van "Ik zal zijn" of "Ik ben".

YHWH / JHWH ("IK BEN HIJ DIE IS", "IK BEN WIE IS"? "IK BEN DIE BEN" of "IK BEN DIE IK BEN")

Tetragrammaton-related-Masoretic-vowel-points

“ God sprak tot Moses: Ik ben: "Ik ben!" En Hij vervolgde: Dit moet ge aan de Israëlieten antwoorden: "Ik ben" zendt mij tot u!” (Exodus 3:14 Canis)

“En God sprak tot Mozes: IK ZAL ZIJN, DIE IK ZIJN ZAL; en Hij sprak: Aldus zult gij tot de kinderen Israëls zeggen: IK ZAL ZIJN heeft mij tot u lieden gezonden.” (Exodus 3:14 NLB)

Het woord Ehyeh wordt door vele rabbijnse geleerden beschouwd een eerste-persoonafleiding van het Tetragrammaton. Het Tetragrammaton is namelijk zelf afgeleid van dezelfde mondelinge wortel. Het kan aanzien worden als "ik ben dat ik". De King James Version of "Ik ben dat ik ben " Koning James versie van de Bijbel vertaalt het Hebreeuws als ben en gebruikt het als een eigennaam voor God.
“And God said unto Moses, "I AM THAT I AM." And He said, "Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, ‘I AM hath sent me unto you.’"” (Exodus 3:14 KJ21) “And God said to Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shall you say to the children of Israel, I AM has sent me to you.” (Exodus 3:14 KJBPNV)

De Aramese Targum Onkelos laat deze zinsnede onvertaald en wordt zo in de talmoed geciteerd (B. B. 73a).

Ehyeh is de eerste-persoon enkelvoud in de onvolmaakt tegenwoordige tijd van hayah, "te zijn". Ehyeh is gewoonlijk vertaald met "ik zal zijn", aangezien de onvoltooide tijd in Hebreeuws acties aanduidt die nog niet zijn vervolledigd (b.v. Exodus 3:12, "Zeker ik zal [ehyeh] met u zijn".)

“Maar hij zegt: omdat ik met jou zal zijn {Tussen #Ex 3:12 en #Ex 4:17 is een verband voelbaar tussen vormen van het werkwoord hajah(’zijn’) en de in #Ex 3:15 onthulde godsnaam jhwh (’die-er-zal-zijn’). Om dat verband zichtbaar en hoorbaar te houden, maakt dit gedeelte ‘de ENE’ plaats voor ‘DIE-ER-ZAL-ZIJN’.} en dit is voor jou het teken dat ík je heb gezonden: als je de gemeente hebt uitgeleid uit Egypte zullen jullie God dienen op déze berg!” (Exodus 3:12 NB)

In middeleeuwse Joodse traditie hield men er zeer veel van om zo over de Allerhoogste Schepper van alles te praten.

De zinsnede is ook in andere wereld godsdienstige literatuur gevonden, om het Opperste Wezen te beschrijven, algemeen terug gaande naar het gebruik in Exodus.

Maar het wordt eveneens gebruikt om aan te duiden dat God of iemand anders ergens zal zijn.

“ Vestig u in dit land, en Ik zal met u zijn en u zegenen; want aan u en uw geslacht zal Ik al deze landen geven, en Ik zal de eed, die Ik uw vader Abraham gezworen heb, gestand doen.” (Genesis 26:3 Canis)

“en zal hen binnen Jeruzalem brengen, in welks midden zij zullen wonen. Dan zullen zij mij ten volk, en zal ik hun ten God zijn in trouw en gerechtigheid.” (Zacharia 8:8 Lei)

Voor hen die "Ik ben die ben" of "Ik ben" willen aanschouwen als een naam kan het in verschijning  mogelijk zijn dat YHWH of JHWH יהוה als een archaïsch derde persoon enkelvoud onvolmaakt tegenwoordige tijd van het werkwoord hayah "אהיה" een vertolking kan blijken om daarom "Hij is" te betekenen . Het is opmerkelijk onderscheiden van de wortel El, dat kan gebruikt worden zoals een eenvoudig substantief om te verwijzen naar de schepper God in het algemeen, als in Elohim, om eenvoudig "God" (of goden) te betekenen. Deze interpretatie gaat akkoord met de betekenis van de naam gegeven in Exodus 3:14, waar God als het spreken is vertegenwoordigd en daarom de eerste persoonsvorm gebruikt  — ehyeh "ik ben". Andere geleerden beschouwen de triconsonantal wortel van hawah הוה tegenover  אהיה  als een waarschijnlijker oorsprong voor de naam יהוה (of drieklank: Yahuwah/ Jehovah).

Hashem השם, Hebrew for "the Name"

In Judaism, the name and titels of God are more than a distinguishing title; they represent the Jewish conception of the divine nature, and of the relationship of God to the Jewish people and to the world.

Those who copied the scrolls were avare of their difficult but important part to keep all Names and titles and each word correct. To demonstrate the sacredness of the name and titles of God, and as a means of showing respect and reverence for them, the scribes of sacred texts treated them with absolute sanctity when writing and speaking them. The various titles for God in Judaism represent God as He is known, as well as the divine aspects which are attributed to Him.

File:Tetragrammaton benediction.png

יברכך יהוה וישמרך
יאר יהוה פניו אליך ויחנך
ישא יהוה פניו אליך וישם לך שלום
"May YHWH bless you and keep you; may YHWH cause his face to shine upon you and be gracious to you; may YHWH lift up his countenance upon you and grant you peace."

Many are confused and take titles for names but the Tetragammaton YHWH stands for the only One Name (Jehovah/Yahweh) which is the only proper "name of God" in the Tanakh, in the sense that Abraham or Sarah are proper names by which you call a person. Whereas words such as Elohim (god, or authority), El (mighty one), Shaddai (almighty), Adonai (master), Elyon (most high), Avinu (our father), etc. are not names but titles, highlighting different aspects of YHWH, and the various roles which God has. This is similar to how someone may be called 'father', 'husband', 'brother', 'son', etc, but their personal name is the only one that can be correctly identified as their actual designation. In the Tanakh, YHWH is the personal name of the God of Israel, whereas other 'names' are titles which are ascribed to God.

Through the years it became the custom to speak about God as over the master or the "gentleman", for which in the Roman catholic (katholische) Church in the 4° Century agreed with the local rulers to put on a resemblance with the then most important god "Lord" as Baal also was named.

In the Judaisme, one chose the word "Master" or the Hebrew word for "Gentleman" Hashem above the word for "Bale" "Baal", "Lord" in English "Heer" in Dutch. Therefore we still would prefer to better use the word "Master" "Hashem" instead of "Lord" what refers to the idol Baal. 

Halakha requires that secondary rules be placed around the primary law, to reduce the chance that the main law will be broken. As such, it is common Jewish practice to restrict the use of the word Adonai to prayer only. In conversation, many Jewish people, even when not speaking Hebrew, will call God "HaShem", השם, which is Hebrew for "the Name" (this appears in Leviticus 24:11).
"And the Yisra’ĕlite woman’s son blasphemed the Name (Hashem), and cursed. So they brought him to Mosheh. Now his mother’s name was Shelomith the daughter of Diḇri, of the tribe of Dan." (Leviticus 24:11 The Scriptures 1998+)

Many Jews extend this prohibition to some of the other titles for the Most High like:

Adonai (אֲדֹנָי) from adon "lord, owner",
Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh אהיה אשר אהיה (I am that I am),
El  אל (deity),
Elah  אֵלָה (awesome),

Eloah אלוהּ ("a god", as opposed to Allah meaning "The God" and in Aramaic (Elaha)),

Elohim  אלהים ("He is the Power (singular) over powers (plural)") For these reasons many Trinitarians cite the apparent plurality of elohim as evidence for the basic Trinitarian doctrine of the Trinity. This was a traditional position but there are some modern Christian theologians who consider this to be an exegetical fallacy.

`Elyon עליון ("supreme"),
Roi (El Roi) “seeing". To Hagar, God revealed Himself as “The God Who sees".

Shaddai [ El Shaddai was therefore the "god of Shaddai"] (Shaddai was a late Bronze Age Amorite city on the banks of the Euphrates river, in northern Syria.)

Shekhinah שכינה "Sakina سكينة" ( presence or manifestation of God which has descended to "dwell" among humanity)

Yah,

YHWH Tzevaot (tzevaot or sabaoth: "hosts" or "armies", Hebrew: צבאות)

HaMakom המקום ("The Omnipresent" (literally, The Place)


Jews will add additional sounds to alter the pronunciation of a name when using it outside of a liturgical context, such as replacing the "h" with a "k" in names of God such as "kel" and "elokim".
While other names, or better titles, of God in Judaism are generally restricted to use in a liturgical context, HaShem is used in more casual circumstances.
HaShem is used by Orthodox Jews so as to avoid saying Adonai outside of a ritual context. For example, when some Orthodox Jews make audio recordings of prayer services, they generally substitute HaShem for Adonai; a few others have used Amonai. [Read more about this in:
Stanley S. Seidner, "HaShem: Uses through the Ages". Unpublished paper, Rabbinical Society Seminar, Los Angeles, CA, 1987.] On some occasions, similar sounds are used for authenticity, as in the movie Ushpizin, where Abonai Elokenu [sic] is used throughout.

Dutch version / Nederlandse versie:

Hashem השם, Hebreeuws voor "de Naam"

In judaïsme is de naam van God meer dan een onderscheidende titel; het vertegenwoordigt het Joodse ontstaan van de goddelijke natuur en van de verhouding van God naar de Joodse mensen en naar de wereld.

Om de heiligheid van de naam en titels van God te demonstreren en als een middel om respect en ontzag te tonen voor hen, behandelden de kopiisten van heilige teksten hen met absolute onschendbaarheid wanneer zij deze uitschreven of wanneer zij over die God Zijn Naam of titels spraken.

De verschillende titels voor God in judaïsme vertegenwoordigen God zoals Hij gekend is door zijn eigen openbaringen via de profeten en Schrift stellers evenals door de goddelijke aspecten die zijn toegeschreven aan Hem.

Het probleem met veel mensen is dat zij titels met een naam verwarren. Velen nemen een titel als naam terwijl er slecht één werkelijk Naam is. Voor die ene Naam staat in de Heilige Geschriften het Tetragammaton opgetekend YHWH  welk het enige gepaste symbool is voor de "naam van God" in de Tanakh, in de zin dat Abraham of Sarah eigennamen zijn waardoor u een persoon noemt. Zo ook heeft de enige Ware God een Naam die Hij zelf kenbaar heeft gemaakt.

File:Tetragrammaton benediction.png

יברכך יהוה וישמרך

יאר יהוה פניו אליך ויחנך

ישא יהוה פניו אליך וישם לך שלום



Terwijl woorden zoals Elohim (god of autoriteit), El (Machtige één), Shaddai (Almachtige), Adonai (beheerser, meester), Elyon (de Meest Hoge, de Allerhoogste), Avinu (onze vader), enz. niet namen zijn maar titels, die verschillende aspecten van YHWH naar voren halen en de verschillende rollen aanhalen die God heeft. Dit is gelijkaardig naar hoe iemand "vader", "echtgenoot", "broer", "zoon" kan genoemd worden, enz., maar hun persoonlijke naam is de enige die correct als hun eigenlijke aanwijzing kan geïdentificeerd worden.

In de Tanakh is YHWH Jehovah (Yahweh) de persoonlijke naam van de God van Israël, terwijl andere "namen" titels zijn die zijn toegeschreven naar God.

Doorheen de jaren is er de gewoonte gekomen om over God als de meester of heer te spreken, waarvoor in de Rooms katholische Kerk in de 4° Eeuw overeengekomen werd met de plaatselijke heersers om een gelijkenis op te stellen met de toen voornaamste god "Heer" zoals Baal ook werd genoemd. In het Judaisme verkoos men het woord "Meester" of het Hebreesuwe woord voor "Heer" Hashem boven het woord voor "Baal" "Lord" in het Engels "Heer" in het Nederlands. Daarom zou men nu nog steeds beter het woord "Meester" "Hashem" gebruiken in plaats van "Heer" te zeggen wat verwijst naar de afgod Baal.

Halakha vereist dat secundaire regels worden geplaatst rond de voornaamste wet, om zo de kans te verminderen dat de hoofdwet gebroken zal worden. Aldus is het zo een gemeenschappelijk Joods gebruik om het gebruik van de woord Adonai enkel te beperken tot het gebed.

In gesprek zullen vele Joodse mensen, zelfs wanneer zij geen Hebreeuws spreken, God "HaShem" noemen, die Hebreeuwse term voor "de Naam" is (opgetekend in Leviticus 24:11).

“ En daar de zoon van de Israëlietische de Naam verwenste en vervloekte, bracht men hem tot Moses. Zijn moeder heette Sjelomit, en was de dochter van Dibri uit de stam van Dan.” (Leviticus 24:11 Canis) "En de zoon van de Israëlische vrouw lasterde de Naam (Hashem) en vervloekte. Daarom brachten zij hem naar Mosheh. Nu was de naam van zijn moeder Shelomith de dochter van Dibri van de stam van Dan." (Leviticus 24:11 De Geschriften)



Vele Joden verlengen dit verbod naar sommige van de andere hier onder genoemde titels

Adonai (אֲדֹנָי) afkomstig van adon "landheer, eigenaar", Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh אהיה אשר אהיה (Ik ben die ik ben), El  אל  (godheid/goddelijkheid), Elah  אֵלָה (Ontzagwekkende),

Eloah אלוהּ ("een god", tegengesteld aan Allah betekenende "De God" en in het Aramees (Elaha)),

Elohim  אלהים ("Hij is de Kracht (enkelvoudig) over krachten (meervoudig)")Om die reden halen de Trinitarians meestal duidelijk de meervoudigheid van elohim aan als bewijs voor hun doctrine van de Heilige Drievuldigheid of Drie-eenheid (Trinity). Dat was een traditionele positie maar er zijn ook enkele moderne Christelijke  theologien die het een exegetische dwaling noemen

`Elyon עליון ("opperste"),

Roi (El Roi) “ziende". Tot Hagar openbaarde God zichzelf als “De God die ziet".


Shaddai [ El Shaddai was de "god van Shaddai"] (een late Brons tijd Amorite stad aan de oevers van de Euphrates rivier, in noord Syria.)


Shekhinah שכינה "Sakina سكينة" ( presence or manifestation of God which has descended to "dwell" among humanity)


Yah,  YHWH Tzevaot (tzevaot or sabaoth: "gastheer", "optredende" or "legers", Hebrew: צבאות)


HaMakom המקום ("De Omnipresent" "Allomtegenwoordige" (letterlijk, De Ruimte)


Zo zullen Joden ook bijkomende geluiden toevoegen om de uitspraak van een naam te veranderen wanneer zij deze buiten een liturgische context gebruiken. Zo zullen zij de de "h" met een "k" vervangen in titels of namen van God zoals "kel" en "elokim".

Terwijl andere namen of beter titels van God in judaïsme algemeen beperkt worden in een liturgische context te gebruiken, is HaShem in meer ongedwongen omstandigheden gebruikt.
HaShem wordt door Orthodoxe Joden gebruikt om te vermijden Adonai buiten een rituele context te zeggen. Bijvoorbeeld wanneer sommige Orthodoxe Joden audioopnamen van gebeddiensten maken, vervangen zij algemeen HaShem voor Adonai; enkele anderen gebruiken Amonai . [Lees hier over meer in Stanley S. Seidner, "HaShem: Uses through the Ages". Unpublished paper, Rabbinical Society Seminar, Los Angeles, CA, 1987.] Bij sommige gelegenheden, zijn gelijkaardige geluiden voor authenticiteit gebruikt, als in de film Ushpizin , waar overal Abonai Elokenu [sic] is gebruikt.

Wednesday, 2 November 2011

Kerstmis, Katholicisme en heidense feesten

Op   stond een artikel waar men het ook over de Christelijke feestdagen heeft en de Thora.

Wij gaan niet akkord met alles wat in het artikel staat maar willen het u wel even voorleggen als stof tot nadenken:

Christian holidays are based on the sun/son god Ra which is the secret reason Christians switched to a calendar based on sun cycle, Chri-smass (callout.sun). Sun-Day celebrates the Sun/son god Ra/Yhwh. It also explains the meaning of the words Vatican beti.can = my-house.here and Catho.lic = This-sect.for-me. Together Jews and Christians worship the mysterious Yhwh a.k.a Tho & Ra. Hanukah called the “Holiday of Light”, like Christmas celebrates the “god of Light” (light = Or) the god Ra.

Lees verder:

A Newly Developed Language Decoder Reveals the Torah is the Lost Book of Thoth Who is Hebrew God Yhwh-Elohim

In his upcoming book the Keys to the library, Joe Lanyadoo reveals a new decoder that offers a new understanding of the Torah, the origin of language and the origin of the human race. Using the decoder reveals that all religious writings tell the same story and were written by the same deity. The Tho-Ra was given to Moses 3500 years ago by its author Yhwh, E.l.h.i.m אֱלֹהִים who is none other than the Egyptian Moon god Thoth, the god of all knowledge and all writing who Lanyadoo claims wrote all religious myths.


> Torah is the Lost Book of Thoth

Letterlijke bijbelvertaling verkozen

Het is fijn te horen dat de meerderheid van diegenen die werkelijk de Bijbel willen lezen en hun Bijbelvertaling ook willen gebruiken om meer over God, zijn Gebod, Zijn Zoon en Zijn Plannen te leren, dat dezen verkiezen om eerder een letterlijke vertaling onder ogen te krijgen dan een vrije vertaling te gebruiken.


LifeWay Research heeft een studie onder 2,000 Amerikaanse Bijbel lezers gevoerd. Om in aanmerking te komen moesten de deelnemers werkelijk ook thuisgebruikers van de Bijbel zijn en niet enkel voor de dienst op zondag.

75% van de respondenten verkozen om getrouwheid van de vertaling.

Bij de vraag of men eerder voor een vrije vertaling ging die de gedachte weergaf of een woord voor woord letterlijke vertaling kozen 61 percent voor de woord-voor-woord vertaling.
Maar betreft de stijl is het opvallend dat toch nog 68% de taal eenvoudiger wil hebben en 81% vindt dat het aangenamer om lezen zou moeten zijn.
46% wenst vast te houden aan de traditionele oude taal terwijl 36% een meer moderne taal wenst te zien.
22% wil een vlottere gewone taal en 26% minder formeel terwijl 40% de formele taal verkiezen en 44% meer een taal voor ernstiger en diepgaande studie.



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Accuracy, Word-for-Word Translation Preferred by most Bible Readers

Survey: Bible Readers want Accuracy, Word-for-Word Translation

A new study from LifeWay Research reveals some key findings on what distinctives Bible readers desire for their Bible. A total of 2,000 Bible readers participated through a demographically representative online panel, but to qualify, participants had to read the Bible in a typical month either by themselves or as part of a family activity and not merely in a church or corporate group setting.


Most American Bible readers prefer word-for-word translations of the original Greek and Hebrew over thought-for-thought translations and value accuracy over readability.
That is the finding of a new LifeWay Research study of a total of 2,000 Bible readers who participated through a demographically representative online panel. To qualify, participants had to read the Bible in a typical month either by themselves or as part of a family activity and not merely in a church or corporate group setting.
When asked whether they prefer “word-for-word translations, where the original words are translated as exactly as possible” or “thought-for-thought translations, where the translators attempt to reproduce the intent of the original thought rather than translating the exact words,” 61 percent chose word-for-word.
That includes 33 percent who strongly prefer word-for-word translation and 28 percent who somewhat prefer it. In contrast, 20 percent prefer thought-for-thought, including 6 percent with a strong preference and 14 percent who somewhat prefer it. Fourteen percent say both translation philosophies are equally fine, and 5 percent are not sure.
Regarding accuracy, respondents were asked, “In general, what is more important to you in a Bible: total accuracy to the original words, or easy readability?” Three out of four (75 percent) opt for total accuracy, with 43 percent saying accuracy is much more important and 32 percent saying it is somewhat more important.
Fourteen percent say easy readability is somewhat more important, and 8 percent say it is much more important. Three percent are not sure.
“It is interesting to note that Bible sales do not necessarily follow these preferences,” said Scott McConnell, director of LifeWay Research. “Those reading the Bible each month represent only a portion of all Bible purchasers.
“Bible readers can share their preferences for different translation principles but may not be aware of which characteristics are present in specific translations – even the ones that they own. Without specific instruction most readers will not notice when a translation moves away from a literal or word-for-word translation.”
Respondents hold a variety of opinions regarding the style of language they prefer in a Bible translation for personal reading. Among them:
– 68 percent want language to be simpler to understand while 7 percent want it to be more difficult to understand.
– 81 percent say it should be more enjoyable to read while 4 percent prefer it to be more of a chore to read.
– 27 percent favor contemporary language while 46 percent want traditional language.
– 36 percent want more modern language while 37 percent favor more old-fashioned language.
– 19 percent feel understanding the language should require a higher level of education while 49 percent say it should not require a higher level of education.
– 63 percent believe it should be simple for anyone to understand while 14 percent say the language should be meant more for people who have a lot of experience with the Bible.
– 40 percent prefer more formal language while 26 percent say should be more informal.
– 22 percent want language more for casual reading while 44 percent say it should be designed more for in-depth study.
“In the same way drivers want big, powerful, fuel-efficient vehicles, Bible readers want word-for-word translations that are easy to understand,” said McConnell. “As translators try to cross the globe and two millennia, fully accomplishing both is not always possible.”
The survey also asked about translation of God’s name. Though many Bible versions translate God’s name in the Old Testament as “the LORD,” others prefer using what is believed to be the original pronunciation, “Yahweh.”
Nearly eight in 10 Bible readers (79 percent) prefer the traditional translation “the LORD” over the original pronunciation “Yahweh.” That includes 51 percent who strongly prefer “the LORD” and 27 percent who somewhat prefer it. Seven percent somewhat prefer “Yahweh” while 6 percent strongly prefer it. Eight percent are not sure which they favor.
The vast majority of Bible readers do not prefer gender-inclusive translation approaches. A full 82 percent prefer a literal translation of masculine words that describe people in general rather than a more inclusive translation like “humankind” or “person.”
Study participants were told: “Bible translators have to make choices regarding gender issues. For example, the original Greek and Hebrew often uses masculine words such as those literally meaning ‘man’ to describe people in general. Some translators think these should be translated literally as ‘man’ while others think they should be translated into gender-inclusive terms such as ‘humankind,’ ‘human being,’ ‘person’ or ‘one.’ Which do you prefer?”
A majority (53 percent) strongly prefer literal translation while 29 percent somewhat prefer the literal rendering. Only 9 percent somewhat prefer gender-inclusive translation, and 3 percent strongly prefer it. Six percent are not sure.
Bible readers are even more adamant about not making references to God gender-inclusive.
They were told, “Another issue Bible translators face relates to references to God as ‘father’ in the Greek and Hebrew. Some translators think these should be translated literally as ‘father’ while others think they should be translated into gender-inclusive terms such as ‘parent.’ Do you prefer the literal or more gender-inclusive?”
In response, 89 percent want a literal translation of gender-specific references to God, including 68 percent who strongly prefer literal translation and 21 percent who somewhat prefer literal translation. Five percent somewhat prefer gender-inclusive translation, and 2 percent strongly prefer gender-inclusive translation. Four percent are not sure.
“The places in the Bible in which the inspired writers used masculine words for God, a large majority of Bible readers want translators to use masculine words as well,” noted McConnell. “This is true regardless of whether the reader describes their own spiritual beliefs as liberal or conservative.”
Methodology: The LifeWay Research survey was conducted in August 2011 via online panel. A representative sample of U.S. adult population was invited to participate. Two thousand people who read the Bible once a month or more qualified for the study. Only people who read the Bible personally (outside of group activities) or as part of a family activity were included. The sample of 2,000 provides 95 percent confidence that the sampling error does not exceed + 2.2 percent.
- Nashville, Tenn. - PRWEB -  October 03, 2011

Hebrew, Aramaic and Bibletranslation

Every academic year we do like to swap Bibletranslation to keep our minds alert to what is written and meant in the Holy Scriptures.

Most of us do not speak Hebrew or even do not know to speak or read the language. Having no knowledge of the language in which most of the Books of the Bible are written does not make it easy to come to the full understanding of those Hebrew words.

We do have to depend on translations which can be very strict in their translation or take a lot of freedom to translate what is written with a few words but gives a whole (long) meaning. Having no vowels or "the" "a" or "an" at certain places can create a certain confusion.


The Hebrew language  (/ˈhbr/) (עִבְרִית, Ivrit, About this sound Hebrew pronunciation ) is a Semitic language of the Northern Central (also called Northwestern) group or Afroasiatic language family, closely related to Phoenician and Moabite, with which it is often placed by scholars in a Canaanite subgroup.
Culturally, is it considered by Jews and other religious groups as the language of the Jewish people, though other Jewish languages had originated among diaspora Jews, and the Hebrew language is also used by non-Jewish groups, such as the Samaritans. Most of the Samaritans went to use modern Hebrew or Arabic as their vernacular.

Spoken in ancient times in Palestine, Hebrew was sup­planted by the western dialect of Aramaic which Jeshua (Jesus) also spoke, during the 3rd century BCE; the language con­tinued to be used as a liturgical and literary language, however. It was revived as a spoken language in the 19th and 20th centuries CE and is the official language of Israel.

The history of the Hebrew language is usually divided into three major periods:
 1.Biblical Hebrew is often looked at as a dialetic form of Classical Hebrew The Biblical Hebrew according to scholars flourished around the 6th century BCE, around the time of the Babylonian exile. Classical Hebrew was used until c. 3rd century BCE, in which most of the core of the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible) or Old Testament is written. For this reason, Hebrew has been referred to by Jews as Leshon HaKodesh (לשון הקודש), "The Holy Language", since ancient times.
 2. Mishnaic or rabbinic Hebrew, the language of the Mishna (a collection of Jewish traditions), written c. CE 200 (this form of Hebrew was never used among the people as a spoken language);
 and 3. Modern Hebrew, derived from the word "ʕibri" (plural "ʕibrim") one of several names for the Jewish people, the language of Israel in modern times.

In the Bible, the Hebrew language is called Yәhudit (יהודית) because Judah (Yәhuda) was the surviving kingdom at the time of the quotation, late 8th century BCE (Isaiah 36, 2 Kings 18). In Isaiah 19:18, it is also called the "Language of Canaan" (שְׂפַת כְּנַעַן).

Scholars generally agree that the oldest form of He­brew is that of some of the Old Testament po­ems, especially the "Song of Deborah" in chapter 5 of Judges. The sources of borrowed words first appearing during this period include the other Canaanite languages, as well as Akkadian and Aramaic. Hebrew also con­tains a small number of Sumerian words borrowed from an Akkadian source. Few traces of dialects exist in Biblical Hebrew, but scholars believe this to be the result of Masoretic editing of the text. In addition to the Old Tes­tament, a small number of inscriptions in He­brew of the biblical period are extant; the earliest of these is a short inscription in Phoenician characters dating from the 9th century BC. During the early Mishnaic period, some of the guttural consonants of Biblical Hebrew were combined or confused with one another, and many words, among them a number of adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, were borrowed from Aramaic. Hebrew also borrowed a number of Greek, Latin, and Persian words. Use of the language declined from the 9th century until the 18th century. Modern Hebrew, based on the biblical lan­guage, contains many innovations designed to meet modern needs; it is the only colloquial speech based on a written language. The pronunciation is a modification of that used by Jhe Sefardic (Hispano-Portuguese) Jews rather than that of the Ashkenazic (East European) Jews. The old guttural consonants are' not clearly distinguished or are lost, except by Oriental Jews. The syntax is based on that of the Mishna. Characteristic of Hebrew of all stages is the use of word roots consisting of three consonants, to which vowels are added to derive words of different parts of speech and meaning. The language is written from right to left in a Semitic script of 22 letters.

Hebrew alphabet, either of two distinct Semitic alphabets-the Early Hebrew and the Classical, or Square, Hebrew. Early Hebrew was the alphabet used by the Jewish nation in the period before the Babylonian Exile -i.e., prior to the 6th century BCE - although some inscriptions in this alphabet may be of a later date.

Several hundred inscriptions exist. As is usual in early alphabets, Early Hebrew exists in a variety of local variants and also shows development over time; the oldest example of Early Hebrew writing, the Gezer Calendar, dates from the 10th century BCE, and the writing used varies little from the earliest North Semitic alphabets. The Early Hebrew alphabet, like the modern Hebrew variety, had 22 letters, with only consonants represented, and was written from right to left; but the early alphabet is more closely related in letter form to the Phoenician than to the modern Hebrew. Its only surviving descendant is the Samaritan alphabet, still used by a few hundred Samaritan Jews.

Between the 6th and 2nd centuries BCE, Classi­cal, or Square, Hebrew gradually displaced the Aramaic alphabet, which had replaced Early Hebrew in Palestine. Square Hebrew became established in the 2nd-1st centuries BCE and developed into the modern Hebrew al­phabet over the next 1,500 years. It was ap­parently derived from the Aramaic alphabet rather than from Early Hebrew but was nonetheless strongly influenced by the Early Hebrew script.

Classical Hebrew showed three distinct forms by the 10th century CE: Square Hebrew, a formal or book hand; rabbinical or "Rashi-writing," employed by medieval Jewish scholars; and various local cur­sive scripts, of which the Polish-German type became the modern cursive form.

Dead Sea Scroll Hebrew from the 3rd century BCE to the 1st century CE, corresponding to the Hellenistic and Roman Periods before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and represented by the Qumran Scrolls that form most (but not all) of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Commonly abbreviated as DSS Hebrew, also called Qumran Hebrew. The Imperial Aramaic script of the earlier scrolls in the 3rd century BCE evolved into the Hebrew square script of the later scrolls in the 1st century CE, also known as ketav Ashuri (Assyrian script), still in use today.

The son of Myriam (Mary/Maria) and Joseph (Josef/Jozef) from the tribe of Daniel, also known as Jeshua, Jesus Christ the Messiah, spoke the Aramaic language which also belongs to the Semitic languages of the Northern Central or Northwestern group or to the Afroasiatic language phylum.The name of the language is based on the name of Aram,  an ancient region in central Syria.(Oxford English dictionary, http://oed.com/viewdictionaryentry/Entry/10127)

During its 3,000-year written history, Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship. It was the day-to-day language of Israel in the Second Temple period (539 BCE – 70 CE) The difficulty with this language is that Aramaic's long history and diverse and widespread use has led to the development of many divergent varieties which are sometimes called as dialects, though they are quite distinct languages. Therefore, there is no one singular Aramaic language.

In the 7th and 6th centuries BCE, it gradually supplanted Akkadian as the lingua franca of the Near East and later became the official language of the Persian Empire. Aramaic replaced Hebrew as the language of the Jews; portions of the Old Testament books of Dan­iel and Ezra are written in Aramaic, as are the Babylonian and, Jerusalem Talmuds.

Jesus and the Apostles also spoke this language. Its period of greatest influence extended from c. 300 BC until c. AD 650; it was supplanted by Arabic.

In the early Christian era, Aramaic divided into East and West varieties. West Aramaic dialects include Nabataean (formerly spoken in parts of Arabia), Palmyrene (spoken in Palmyra, which was northeast of Damascus), Palestinian-Christian, and Judeo-Aramaic. West Aramaic is still spoken in a small number of villages in Lebanon. East Aramaic includes Syriac, Mandaean, Eastern Neo-Assyrian, and the Aramaic of the Babylonian Talmud.

One of the most important of these is Syriac, which was the language of an extensive literature between the 3rd and 7th centuries. Mandaean was the dialect of a Gnostic sect centred in lower Mesopotamia. East Aramaic is still spoken by a few small groups of Jacobite and Nestorian Christians in the Middle East.

Modern Aramaic is spoken today as a first language by many scattered, predominantly small, and largely isolated communities of differing Christian, Jewish and Mandean ethnic groups of West Asia. (Heinrichs 1990: xi–xv; Beyer 1986: 53.)
Today we can find it by the Assyrians (also known as Chaldo-Assyrians) in the form of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic and Chaldean Neo-Aramaic.

File:Syriac Sert book script.jpg


Looking into those ancient languages we do want to follow their way of thinking, understanding how the thoughts are blended into words and phrases full of verbatim and proverbs which we do have to try to see and understand in the light of the way of thinking at that time.

To give a simple example, a few weeks ago when somebody said he was "mad about his apartment" the American listener thought he had become crazy or out of mind because of his apartment. Though the speaker meant just the opposite, namely that he was in love with his apartment. He did not detest it in such a way that he became insane of it, but he came into the clouds living there. (Not meaning that he really went up into the clouds, high in sky.) I use this simple example in the hope everyone can understand how we have to follow the way of saying and have to be careful not to take a proverb literally. Because that happens a lot today when folks read the Bible. As Bible readers we have to transpose ourselves in the time when it was written and how the people thought at that time.

Further we have to take into account how we are going to or how Bible-translators did  translate the The Hebrew alphabet (Hebrew: אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי‎‎, Alephbet 'Ivri).

By using the Jewish script, square script, block script, or more historically, the Assyrian script, it has to be taken into account how it is spoken out and how one word is written against an other. Best it can be compared to other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic.

There have been two script forms in use. The original old Hebrew script is known as the paleo-Hebrew script (which has been largely preserved, in an altered form, in the Samaritan script), while the present "square" form of the Hebrew alphabet is a stylized form of the Aramaic script, which has its alphabet adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinctive from it by the 8th century BCE. The letters all represent consonants, some of which are matres lectionis, which also indicate long vowels.
The Aramaic alphabet is historically significant, since virtually all modern Middle Eastern writing systems use a script that can be traced back to it, as well as numerous Altaic writing systems of Central and East Asia. This is primarily due to the widespread usage of the Aramaic language as both a lingua franca and the official language of the Neo-Assyrian, and its successor, the Achaemenid Empire. Among the scripts in modern use, the Hebrew alphabet bears the closest relation to the Imperial Aramaic script of the 5th century BCE, with an identical letter inventory and, for the most part, nearly identical letter shapes.
Aramaic alphabet, major writing system in the Near East in the latter half of the 1st mil­lennium BC. Derived from the North Semitic script, the Aramaic alphabet was developed in the 10th and 9th centuries BC and rose into prominence after the conquest of the Aramaean states by Assyria in the 9th and 8th centuries BC. The Aramaic language and script were used as a lingua franca over all of the Near East, and documents and inscriptions in the Aramaic alphabet have been found in Greece, Afghanistan, India, northern Arabia, and Egypt. The oldest inscription in Aramaic script yet discovered dates from approximately 850 BC.
The Aramaic alphabet is a writing system of 22 letters, all indicating consonants, and it is written from right to left. It is ancestral to Square Hebrew and the modern Hebrew al­phabet, the Nabataean and modern Arabic scripts, the Palmyrene alphabet, and the Syriac, as well as hundreds of other writing sys­tems used at some time in Asia east of Syria. Aramaic also has been influential in the devel­opment of such alphabets as the Georgian, Armenian, and Glagolitic.
Various "styles" (in current terms, "fonts") of representation of the letters exist. There is also a cursive Hebrew script, which has also varied over time and place.

When we want to use names of persons and places we should carefully look how they are written and spoken. When we transfer certain letters into our language into a consonant we should do that for all the words the same way. In English translations we can often find irregularities in that. For example do we not find Yona, but Jonah, Joshua, and Jeruzalem for Yerusalem, but for Yeshua they write Jesus and for Yahuhwah they suddenly go from three syllables to two syllable and write for the Yod an Ypsolom giving God the Name Yahweh instead of the better translation, keeping to the three original syllables, Jehovah and speaking it better not as Americans with an "Dzee" but with an "Yea".

This year we shall become more confronted with those Aramaic names and also will see that in the original writings of the Scriptures they used different words for slightly different things. In such a way we shall wonder if we not better take those different meanings also in our language as different words so that we clearly shall be able to see if there is been spoken off of a direct pupil of Jeshua (Jesus),  or one of the many disciples or the special pupils or sent ones (Shlichim) or one of the seventy.

By checking if the Beth, Daleth, Gimel Heth, Kaf, Qof and the vowels tërë and bireq are translated into the other languages we shall see where there was no consistency and which one we better should follow.

We do know that within a Hebrew name the aleph represents a smooth breathing, and for practical purposes may be considerd a 'silent' letter, but because it gives a softer sound than without putting the 'h' on top of it we do prefer to use the 'h' as well in Dutch, though the Language Commision gives it without an 'h'. The Governemental Dutch language regulation, by the Dutch Language Union and the Spellingraad (Spelling Committee and Dutch Spelling Council) indicate that we should write Jehova in Dutch for the Hebrew Name of God, but there we prefer to use the International used form of Jehovah to have uniformity on our websites in the different languages (and giving more possibilities to have it spoken out as in Hebrew with the soft h-ending. )


For this article is made use of the Encyclopaedia Britannica where you can find more:

Encyclopaedia Britannica Macropaedia: Major re/. 1:621 b ·alphabetical order antiquity 1:619d . Semitic calligraphy development 3:662b . signs and English equivalent, table 3 8:594 . vowel indication methods 19: 1038c; table 1035 . Yiddish adaptation 8:26c

 alphabet origins and standardization 1:621 b; table 620 . alphabet and English equivalent, table 3 8:594 'alphabetical order antiquity 1:619d ·English vocabulary borrowings 6:879a ·Hamito-Semitic languages map 8:590 ·Israel's revival of common language 9: 105ge ·Jewish liturgical use and status 10:297c . Karaite impetus to 9th-century studies 10:318f ·medieval belief in aboriginality 10:643h ·naming patterns 12: 818f ·origins, development, and literary use 10: 196d 'preservation and educational respect 6: 322f 'punctuation and pointing since 800s 15:276g 'relationships, writing, and phonology 8:592d passim to 595c . sacral status as biblical language 7:60h 'U.S. parochial education curriculum 6:42ge ·Yiddish formative influences 8:25h
 
See also Syriac language. 'ancient spread and influence 17:942g +
 Major re/. 1:619h . calligraphy style and development 3:662b ·Iranian varieties and adaptations 9:456d . origins, spread, and influence 17:942g ·vowel indication methods 19: 1038c; table 1035

RELATED ENTRIES in the Ready Reference and Index: Armenian alphabet; Brahml; Georgian alphabets; Greek alphabet; Hebrew alphabet; Kharo~!l; Klik Turki alphabet; Nabataean alphabet; Pahlavi alphabet; Palmyric alphabet; Samaritan alphabet; Syriac alphabet

Hebreeuws en Aramees vs Germaanse talen

Hebreeuws behoort tot de Semitische tak van de Afro-Aziatische talen. Hierdoor is het Hebreeuws verwant aan andere Semitische talen als het Arabisch, Aramees en Akkadisch en in mindere mate ook aan andere Afro-Aziatische talen als het Amhaars, Berbers en het Egyptisch. De Thora bevat de oudste vorm van Hebreeuws. Het Hebreeuws werd opnieuw een levende taal begin 19e eeuw, waarbij het onder met name seculiere joden geleidelijk een aantal andere door joden gesproken talen, zoals Jiddisch en Ladino, tot op zekere hoogte verving.

Jezus sprak Aramees in de omgang en in de tempel sprak hij het gebruikelijke Hebreeuws. De geschriften uit zijn tijd werden veelvuldig ook in het Aramees opgesteld.

Om die reden nemen wij voor dit academisch jaar de Aramese Bijbels ter hand voor onze Dagelijkse lezingen en in onze dienst.In het Nederlands zullen wij "De Geschriften" en de "AEDNT" of Aremaic English Dutch New Testament gebruiken. In het Engels de equivalent Aramaic English New Testament en "The Sricptures".

 Een kenmerk van veel Semitische talen, waaronder het Hebreeuws, is het zogenaamde triconsonantalisme. Bijna alle woorden kunnen herleid worden tot drie consonanten (medeklinkers), de radicalen, die de wortel (radix) van het woord vormen. Sommige radicaalstammen zijn 'afgesleten' of 'uitgehold', zodat er soms nog maar twee radicalen zichtbaar zijn. Er zijn ook stammen die uit meer dan drie radicalen bestaan, soms onder invloed van andere talen. En dan zijn er nog de leenwoorden, waarvoor de linguïstische wetten van het Hebreeuws uiteraard niet gelden. Hoewel het Jiddisch veel Hebreeuwse en Aramese woorden bevat, behoort die taal tot de Germaanse tak van de Indo-Europese talen - dezelfde taalgroep waartoe ook het Nederlands, het Duits en het Engels behoren.

Het is in de optie rekening te houden met de originele taal dat wij ook beter voorkeur zouden geven aan óf hetzelfde gebruik van een woord óf om een gelijkaardige vertaling te gebruiken. Men kan niet voor één worod een bepaalde klinker of medeklinkerkeuze gebruiken terwijl men voor een ander woord een andere medeklinker en klinker keuze zou gaan toepassen. Zo kan de Yod in het Hebreeuws niet vervangen worden door een J terwijl men op een andere plaats de voorkeur geeft aan het gebruik van een Ypsolom. De Y zou in elke Germaanse taal moeten vertaald worden met een J, daarom niet Yahweh bijvoorbeeld, maar Jahwe. Maar die naam voor god is niet overeenkomstig de drieklank in het Hebreeuws waar het Yahuwhah klinkt als het Nederlandse Jehovah (of "Jehovwhah") Om die reden moet men dan ook opteren voor Jehovah als de meest geschikte omzetting van de Naam van God, de Hashem Elohim "Ik ben die ben".

Zeus een heerser van hemel en aarde

In de oudheid nam men aan dat het geheel der dingen wel oest geschapen zijn door een speciaal wezen. Al de geneugten die men kon verkrijgen door al het geen men kon bewonderen en verorberen. Maar als er iemand zo machtig kon zijn om dat alles te doen ontstaan kon hij dat ook doen reageren en werken: de aarde kon werken maar ook de lichten en de wateren konden werken. donder en bliksem waren de sprekende krachten van die god.

Zeus--greek-mythology-687267_1024_768 Het flitsende licht maakte dat hij kon waargenomen worden en daarvoor werd de bliksemschicht de symbolische voorstelling van deze god die als heerser van hemel en aarde, vader van de goden en van de mensen mocht zijn. Met de bliksemschicht kon hij de stralende zijn (Indo-Europees *Djev = stralende, verwant met Latijn dies = dag) duidend op een verwantschap met de verering van het heldere uitspansel. Zeus (Oudgrieks: Ζεύς, genitivus Διός of Ζηνος) is een figuur uit de Griekse mythologie welke voor de Romeinen dezelfde god was als Jupiter of Iupiter en als meest wezenlijke functie die van hemelgod had.Hij heerste vanaf de berg Olympus in Thessalië. De Germaanse volkeren vereenzelvigden hem met Wodan en de Scandinavische volken met Odin.

Iemand die zo veel macht had dat hij alles kon doen ontstaan moest wel inventief en avontuurlijk zijn. en mits de vrouwmens kinderen ter wereld kon brengen moest dat wezen wel mogelijks verbonden kunnen zijn of verleid kunnen worden door die machtige god.
Door zijn grote behoefte aan avontuur en speelsheid kreeg hij ontelbaar veel kinderen bij godinnen en aardse vrouwen. Velen werden door Hera gestraft. Er zijn ook verhalen die aantonen dat Zeus ook van mannen kon houden, zo werd deze koning in het vreemdgaan verliefd op de koninklijke Trojaan Ganymedes. Zeus was zo dol op deze jongen dat hij hem tot zijn wijnschenker maken (dan voel je je belangrijk), zo kreeg Zeus zijn Nectar aangeboden door Ganymedes. Zijn belangrijkste avonturen vonden plaats met: Maia (Hermes), Semele (Dionysos), Leto (Apollo en Artemis), Themis (de Moerae, dit waren schikgodinnen, en de Horen, dit waren de godinnen van de jaargetijden) en bij Mnemosyne verwekte Zeus de Muzen.

Vreemd is dat hij als heerser van hemel en aarde dan toch nog een zoon van Kronos (Lat. Saturnus) en Rheia, twee van de twaalf Titanen, de machtige zonen en dochters van Ouranos, de hemelgod kon zijn. Kronos was de opvolger van Ouranos. Zeus was als enige zoon ontsnapt aan Kronos' vraatzucht, die was opgewekt door een orakel dat voorspelde dat een van zijn zonen hem eens van de troon zou stoten. Om dit te voorkomen verzwolg hij al zijn kinderen. Maar de verdrietige Rheia wist de geboorte van Zeus geheim te houden en zij verborg hem in een verafgelegen, donkere grot op Kreta waar hij werd opgevoed door de nimfen. Daar dronk hij melk van de geit Amaltheia en brachten de bijen hem honing. Adriasteia en Ida, dochters van Melisseus, verzorgden hem. Ook de priesters van die streek, de Koureten, hielpen mee de jonge god te beschermen. Ze bewaakten de grot en als hij huilde sloegen ze hard op hun wapenrusting, zodat Kronos het niet zou horen.

Al vroeg, wellicht reeds in de Myceense tijd (ca. 1600 tot ca. 1100 v.Chr.), werd hij de centrale figuur van het Griekse pantheon en stelde hij de overige goden op de achtergrond. Naar het voorbeeld van hoofden van aanzienlijke geslachten op aarde stelde men Zeus voor als het hoofd van de godenfamilie.

Voor Europa zou hij aan de wieg liggen van onze contreien.

De beeldschone dochter was van Agenor en Telephasse, Europa ging op een dag met haar vriendinnen naar het strand van Sidona. zeus die alles gade sloeg vanuit de hemelen zag de beeldige minne en kreeg er zin in. In de gedaante van een tamme witte stier benaderde hij Europa en legde zich aan haar voeten. Toen Europa genoeg moed verzameld had om met de stier te spelen durfde zij zelfs op zijn rug te gaan zitten. Maar toen ze dat deed greep Zeus zijn kans schoon om zich op te richten en de zee in te rennen. Europa huilde en smeekte om terug te gaan, maar tevergeefs. Europa moest zichzelf goed vasthouden om niet te vallen. Zeus bracht haar naar Kreta, waar hij haar bij de bron van Gortyna (in de bosjes) beminde, vanaf dat moment zijn deze bomen groenblijvend, omdat ze de liefde van een god bedekte. Zeus en Europa kregen 3 kinderen: de legendarische Minos, de dappere Sarpedon en de rechtvaardige Radhamanthys. Er wordt gefluisterd dat Zeus de enorme robot Talus aan Europa gaf als geschenk.

Europa trouwde later met de koning van Kreta Asterion, die haar kinderen adopteerde, ook gaf hij het continent waar Griekenland en omliggende landen in liggen de naam Europa.

De stier steeg op naar de hemel en is sinds die dag een sterrenbeeld: de Stier.

Zeus is ook onafscheidelijk verbonden met Aphrodite die 'ontstond' toen Zeus de gonaden van Kronos in zee wierp.

Ook is er hier met deze god een vreemde verbintenis met een oermoeder Gaia van de Aarde (Oudgrieks: Γαῖα, Γαῖη of Γῆ) of Gaea (gelatiniseerd) in het Romeins Tellus of Terra. In dat licht paste Zeus of Ieus goed in het kader van diegenen die een gelijkenis met de Griekse en Romeinse goden wensten in het Christendom. As men Jeshua voor Ieus of Jesus ("Heil Zeus") nam kon zijn moeder Myriam als Maria ook moeder van god worden.Door tekens de naam Jesus of Jezus te zeggen kon men dan tegelijk Zeus vereren en alle heil toe brengen. Met zijn moeder als moeder van god en aardse moeder aan te nemen kon zij ook moeder aarde vertolken.

Voor hen die wilden vasthouden dat de aarde was ontstaan uit een zwart gat of uit chaos kwam Gaia als godin overeen. Zij is dan die oermoeder, de Aarde, die ontstond uit de Chaos aan het begin van de dingen. De Chaos bevatte alle basisbestanddelen, de vier elementen aarde, water, lucht en vuur. Daaruit ontstond onder anderen Gaea.

Zeus had enkele van Gaia, afgebeeld als een mollige vrouw, in de tweede grote oorlog om de hemelheerschappij, tussen Zeus en zijn tegenstanders, de monsterlijke Giganten.enkele kinderen gevangen genomen om te laten kwellen in Tartarus. De monsterlijke Giganten werden door Gaia opgeroepen om de kinderen te bevrijden. Hoewel de reuzen in hun woede hele bergen losrukten en op elkaar stapelden, won Zeus de strijd en werd hij voorgoed en onbetwist heerser van het heelal, als Opperste in de kring der goden.

Door Jeshua ook de rol van Zeus toe te dienen kon die nieuwe god ook heerser van het heelal worden.


Tuesday, 1 November 2011

With God All Things Are Possible

With God All Things Are Possible


Genesis 18:13 And the LORD said unto Abraham, Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a child, which am old?
14 Is any thing too hard for the LORD? At the time appointed I will return unto thee, according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son.
Job 42:1 Then Job answered the LORD, and said,
2 I know that thou canst do every thing, and that no thought can be withholden from thee.

Jeremiah 32:16 Now when I had delivered the evidence of the purchase unto Baruch the son of Neriah, I prayed unto the LORD, saying,
17 Ah Lord GOD! behold, thou hast made the heaven and the earth by thy great power and stretched out arm, and there is nothing too hard for thee:
18 Thou shewest lovingkindness unto thousands, and recompensest the iniquity of the fathers into the bosom of their children after them: the Great, the Mighty God, the LORD of hosts, is his name,
19 Great in counsel, and mighty in work: for thine eyes are open upon all the ways of the sons of men: to give every one according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings:
20 Which hast set signs and wonders in the land of Egypt, even unto this day, and in Israel, and among other men; and hast made thee a name, as at this day;
21 And hast brought forth thy people Israel out of the land of Egypt with signs, and with wonders, and with a strong hand, and with a stretched out arm, and with great terror;
22 And hast given them this land, which thou didst swear to their fathers to give them, a land flowing with milk and honey;
23 And they came in, and possessed it; but they obeyed not thy voice, neither walked in thy law; they have done nothing of all that thou commandedst them to do: therefore thou hast caused all this evil to come upon them:
24 Behold the mounts, they are come unto the city to take it; and the city is given into the hand of the Chaldeans, that fight against it, because of the sword, and of the famine, and of the pestilence: and what thou hast spoken is come to pass; and, behold, thou seest it.
25 And thou hast said unto me, O Lord GOD, Buy thee the field for money, and take witnesses; for the city is given into the hand of the Chaldeans.
26 Then came the word of the LORD unto Jeremiah, saying,
27 Behold, I am the LORD, the God of all flesh: is there any thing too hard for me?
28 Therefore thus saith the LORD; Behold, I will give this city into the hand of the Chaldeans, and into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, and he shall take it:
29 And the Chaldeans, that fight against this city, shall come and set fire on this city, and burn it with the houses, upon whose roofs they have offered incense unto Baal, and poured out drink offerings unto other gods, to provoke me to anger.

Matthew 19:23 Then said Jesus unto his disciples, Verily I say unto you, That a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven.
24 And again I say unto you, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.
25 When his disciples heard it, they were exceedingly amazed, saying, Who then can be saved?
26 But Jesus beheld them, and said unto them, With men this is impossible; but with God all things are possible.

Mark 9:20 And they brought him unto him: and when he saw him, straightway the spirit tare him; and he fell on the ground, and wallowed foaming.
21 And he asked his father, How long is it ago since this came unto him? And he said, Of a child.
22 And ofttimes it hath cast him into the fire, and into the waters, to destroy him: but if thou canst do any thing, have compassion on us, and help us.
23 Jesus said unto him, If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth.

Mark 10:23 And Jesus looked round about, and saith unto his disciples, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God!
24 And the disciples were astonished at his words. But Jesus answereth again, and saith unto them, Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God!
25 It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.
26 And they were astonished out of measure, saying among themselves, Who then can be saved?
27 And Jesus looking upon them saith, With men it is impossible, but not with God: for with God all things are possible.

Mark 14:32 And they came to a place which was named Gethsemane: and he saith to his disciples, Sit ye here, while I shall pray.
33 And he taketh with him Peter and James and John, and began to be sore amazed, and to be very heavy;
34 And saith unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death: tarry ye here, and watch.
35 And he went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him.
36 And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee; take away this cup from me: nevertheless not what I will, but what thou wilt.

Luke 1:34 Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?
35 And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.
36 And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren.
37 For with God nothing shall be impossible.

Luke 18:22 Now when Jesus heard these things, he said unto him, Yet lackest thou one thing: sell all that thou hast, and distribute unto the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, follow me.
23 And when he heard this, he was very sorrowful: for he was very rich.
24 And when Jesus saw that he was very sorrowful, he said, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God!
25 For it is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.
26 And they that heard it said, Who then can be saved?
27 And he said, The things which are impossible with men are possible with God.